OpenStack API with PowerShell

7 minute read

I’ve been playing around with different platforms, and looking at “native” ways on those platforms for working with OpenStack. One thing I’ve been having some fun with is looking at how to consume the OpenStack REST API’s using PowerShell for Windows.

PowerShell Background

For those unfamiliar, PowerShell is a command line shell and scripting language from Microsoft native to Windows platforms since Windows 7 and since ported and (partially) made open source a couple years ago.

When I worked on Windows platforms regularly, I loved having the power of PowerShell (pun intended Chris). Having an object oriented, loosely typed command line with the entire .Net standard library behind it allowed for doing a lot of things on Windows that were far beyond the capabilities of the Command Prompt and a lot easier than firing up Visual Studio to throw together some throw away code. It has a very nice [verb]-[noun] convention that makes it easy to understand and a lot more readable than raw code.

OpenStack REST APIs

OpenStack uses REST and JSON, and nearly all of the OpenStack service have (mostly) well documented APIs. As you can see from the Cinder API ref, this details the endpoints and the request and response parameters.

Using command line tools like python-cinderclient or the OpenStackClient nicely hides these details. But sometimes you need to do something that is not yet implemented in the client, or you need to write some custom code to do something unique. A really nice thing about these clients is you can pass a --debug option and get curl command line examples for every step the CLI is taking internally.

The curl command is available on most platforms, but not really a standard thing on Windows. Plus, once you get results back from those calls, you need to be able to process that data to perform whatever other operations you are trying to perform.

PowerShell for OpenStack REST calls

This is where PowerShell comes in. PowerShell has cmdlets (“command-lets” - the individual commands you can run in PowerShell) that can perform HTTP operations and handle the results that you get back from the calls.

While there are examples out there of using curl, and there are various development tutorials, it is not entirely obvious how to make all the necessary calls to authenticate and perform the different types of actions that the API exposes.

Authenticating

First, we need to get our credentials for our OpenStack cloud. There are various ways to do this - hard code in the script, read from a file, read environment variables - but for now I am using the Get-Credential cmdlet to prompt for them when the script is run:

$creds = Get-Credential

Then once that is run, we can authenticate against Keystone:

$headers = @{"Content-Type" = "application/json"}

$result = Invoke-WebRequest -Headers $headers -Method Post -Body @"
{
  "auth": {
    "identity": {
      "methods": ["password"],
        "password": {
          "user": {
            "name": "$($creds.UserName)",
            "domain": {"id": "default"},
            "password": "$($creds.GetNetworkCredential().password)"
          }
        }
      },
      "scope": {
        "project": {
          "domain": {"name": "Default"},
          "name": "admin"
      }
    }
  }
}
"@ -Uri http://192.168.1.230:5000/v3/auth/tokens

This code sets a header (json is the default/only type, but just to be thorough) and then uses Invoke-WebRequest to POST against the /v3/auth/tokens endpoint. The body passed in the POST is a JSON structure telling keystone we our “auth”ing, using the “password” method, and providing our credentials for the cloud. You can see $creds.UserName being used for the name value, but then things get a little more complicated with the password.

PowerShell stores the credential password as a SecureString. So for us to provide that in the JSON body we are posting, this needs to extract that out into plain text. That is done via $creds.GetNetworkCredentials().password.

You can also see we are setting the project scope for our token to be admin in the Default domain.

The final step for authentication is to extract our token from the returned headers and set in the headers that we will be using for the rest of our calls:

$os_token = $result.Headers['X-Subject-Token']
$headers.Add('X-Auth-Token', $os_token)

The call to Keystone returns the X-Subject-Token header which we need to pass in subsequent calls as our X-Auth-Token header.

Making API calls

Now that we have our token and it is set in the headers we will pass along, we can make actual calls to the service to do what we need to do.

$result = Invoke-RestMethod -Headers $headers -Uri "http://192.168.1.230:8776/v3/$project_id/volumes"
foreach($vol in $result.volumes) {
}

One thing to point out here is the difference in the cmdlet used to make the call. When authenticating against Keystone, I used the Invoke-WebRequest cmdlet. This is a little more “lower layer” and allows access to some of the raw HTTP info such as the returned headers.

But for the majority of the rest of the calls we need to make, if there is any kind of return value other than the HTTP response code, it is going to be some JSON formatted body. PowerShell has the Invoke-RestMethod cmdlet that hides some of the complexity of processing the raw HTTP response body and gives us access directly to the JSON objects returns.

So in this example, you can see in the foreach loop I am able to directly iterate on $result.volumes to go through each volume object returned from Cinder.

That is a simple GET request, but performing some sort of action using a POST is pretty similar, just with the addition of passing in a JSON body:

$result = Invoke-RestMethod -Headers $headers -Method Post -Body @"
{
  "snapshot": {
    "name": "demo-snap",
    "description": "Demo snapshot for testing",
    "volume_id": "$src_vol",
    "force": "True"
  }
}
"@ -Uri "http://192.168.1.230:8776/v3/$project_id/snapshots"

$snapshot = $result.snapshot

In this case, I’ve set $src_vol to a volume I wanted to snapshot, then passed in a name and description for the snapshot to create from that volume. The required structure is all documented in the Cinder API reference.

Then, since Invoke-WebRequest makes it easy for us, we can just use $result.snapshot to get the returned snapshot object.

Microversioned API calls

Many OpenStack projects use what is called microversions. This allows for changes to a stable API without breaking existing users. By the calling client specifying which microversion they want, they are telling the services what their expected functional behavior should be from the API.

The microversion is requested by another header calls OpenStack-API-Version.

$headers.Add("OpenStack-API-Version", "volume 3.43")
$result = Invoke-RestMethod -Headers $headers -Method Post -Body @"
{
  "attachment": {
    "instance_uuid": "$([guid]::NewGuid())",
    "connector": {
      "initiator": "$((Get-InitiatorPort).NodeAddress)",
      "ip": "$($my_ip.IPAddress)",
      "platform": "x86_64",
      "host": "$env:computername",
      "os_type": "windows",
      "multipath": "true"
    },
    "volume_uuid": "$($volume.id)"
  }
}
"@ -Uri "http://192.168.1.230:8776/v3/$project_id/attachments"

So in this case, by providing volume 3.43 as the value of OpenStack-API-Version, we are telling Cinder to use the 3.43 version of the API. The API could be changed in later releases, but if our calling code passes this in, then we are given assurances that we will still get the same behavior we expect.

In this case, that is passed as part of the headers provided to the call to create a new volume attachment. I am directly accessing the volume from a Windows host, not using Nova, so this just passes in some local host iSCSI initiator and IP address information.

We can then use things like New-IscsiTargetPortal, Connect-IscsiTarget, and other Windows storage management APIs to connect and access our volume.

Logging Out

Once we are all done, it’s a good idea to explicitly log out to invalidate the token we were provided. That’s as simple as passing in the following:

$headers.Add('X-Subject-Token', $os_token)
$result = Invoke-WebRequest -Headers $headers -Method Delete `
    -Uri http://192.168.1.230:5000/v3/auth/tokens

Summary

Any tool that allows making HTTP requests and accessing the headers can be used as one option for consuming the OpenStack REST API. The details here could also be used as a pseudo-code style guide for implementing some of these calls in your programming language of choice. But I think for Windows platforms at least, PowerShell is a tool that is readily available and makes an easy way to script some cloud management tasks.

There are a few PowerShell OpenStack SDK projects out there, but since most I found looked stale or dead, I don’t want to link to them here. But if you are looking for more, there are examples out there if you look.

It would also be possible to build up some helper functions for many of these repetitive tasks, making loading a PowerShell module and running some basic commands very simple.